# Chapter 2 - Objectives and Summary

### for the OUP text *Senior Physics - Concepts in Context* by Walding, Rapkins and
Rossiter

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Knowledge & Understanding

- Distinguish between and explain the meaning of the terms distance, displacement, speed,
velocity and acceleration.
- Use these terms to describe the motion of objects.
- Distinguish between instantaneous and average velocity.
- Identify scalar and vector quantities and use appropriate sign conventions.
- Solve problems involving, velocity, acceleration, displacement and time.
- Use equations of motion to solve problems:

v = s/t; v = u + at; s = ½(u + v)t; s = ut + ½ at2; v^{2}= u^{2} + 2as.
- Describe the motion of objects falling vertically under gravity (* including cases
involving terminal velocity).
- Explain how the acceleration due to gravity can be determined.
- Discuss methods used to record motion.
- Solve problems involving combinations of displacement, time, velocity and acceleration.
- Apply equations of motion to the complex motion involved in domestic, industrial and
scientific applications.
- Critically examine the adequacy of data presented in a variety of real-life situations.

Scientific Techniques

- Plot, interpret and use graphs to describe motion.
- Describe relationships between these graphs of motion.
- Tabulate and analyse motion from ticker–timer tapes.
- Use mathematical and vectorial operations to quantify, analyse and interpret data
generated by ticker-timers, stroboscopes, electronic timers and computer interfaces.
- Use appropriate units of measurement correctly in calculations, reports and tables.
- Relate modern ideas to the historical development of the nature of motion.

### CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY

- The change of position in a particular direction is displacement.
- The average speed of an object is the distance covered divided by the time taken. The
average velocity is the displacement divided by the time taken.
- Instantaneous velocity is the rate of change of displacement.
- The acceleration of an object is its change in velocity divided by the time taken for
the change.
- The gradient of a displacement-time graph is the instantaneous velocity.
- The area under a velocity-time graph indicates the displacement.
- The gradient of a velocity-time graph indicates the acceleration.
- Objects that fall freely under gravity on Earth have a constant acceleration of about 10
m s
^{-2} in the negative (downwards) direction.
- Stopping distance equals reaction time plus braking distance.

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