Chapter Objectives and Summaries
for the Oxford University Press text by Walding, Rapkins and Rossiter:-
" NEW CENTURY Senior Physics - Concepts in Context "
CHAPTER 32 Solar Physics
Knowledge of subject matter
- Recognise the layers of the Sun and state their characteristics.
- Recall the processes of solar nuclear fusion.
- Describe the magnitude of the solar radiation at the Earth's surface and solve simple calculations involving solar energy units.
- Describe the nature of solar features such as sunspots, solar flares and prominences.
- Explain the role of the Greenhouse Effect as a natural agent in terrestrial ecology.
- State methods for the utilisation of solar design in both domestic and industrial installations.
- Distinguish between photothermal and photovoltaic devices.
- Describe the role of semiconductor action in photovoltaic device operation.
- Recognise the features and dangers associated with ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
- Interpret and analyse tabulated data on solar properties, solar radiation or UV radiation monitoring.
- Devise and design various solar energy models or experiments.
- Sketch possible designs for efficient passive or active solar features in domestic buildings.
- Contribute to discussion on health aspects of solar radiation.
Complex reasoning processes
- Solve complex problems relating to solar radiation and its efficient usage.
- Use creative thinking in proposing novel means of energy conservation.
- Recognise invalid claims in products dealing with sun protection and solar energy utilisation.
- Design experiments to test the efficiency of solar devices.
CHAPTER 32 SUMMARY
- Solar physics is the study of the Sun and its energy processes together with technological methods of utilising its emitted radiation on the Earth.
- The Sun radiates energy at about 4 x 1026 W, of which the Earth receives about 1.8 x 1017 W.
- Fraunhofer lines present in the solar spectrum are absorption lines caused by atoms in the solar atmosphere.
- Sunspots are small cooler regions of the solar photosphere associated with the solar magnetic field, which appear to occur in cycles of 22 years.
- The Sun possesses a complex layered structure that has been determined through the study of helioseismology.
- The Greenhouse effect is a natural consequence of solar radiation being trapped by various atmospheric gasses of the Earth.
- Incident solar radiation can be utilised by either active or passive photothermal devices or directly through photovoltaic conversion.
- Solar building design may involve structures such as solar thermal collectors, thermal masses, Trombe walls or flat plate collectors.
- Industrial concentrating collectors include solar power towers, heliostats, solar farms and solar ponds.
- Photovoltaic cells convert solar radiation directly into electrical energy.
- Silicon solar cells are semiconductor devices providing photovoltaic EMF.
- Ultraviolet radiation (A, B and C) is that part of the solar spectrum ranging in wavelength from 400 nm to 1.0 nm.
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