Chapter Objectives and Summaries
for the Oxford University Press text by Walding, Rapkins and Rossiter:-
" NEW CENTURY Senior Physics - Concepts in Context "
CHAPTER 33 Medical Physics.
Knowledge of subject matter
- State the differences between the modes of operation of electron microscopy (SEM).
- Explain the basic principles of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM).
- Describe the uses of ultrasound in engineering, medical imaging and diagnosis.
- Define the terms piezoelectric, echogenicity and Doppler ultrasound.
- List the types of radioisotopes commonly used in nuclear medicine, with typical clinical applications.
- Recall that medical radioisotopes are generally produced in either a reactor or a medical cyclotron.
- Distinguish between the SI unit of absorbed dose, the Gray(Gy) and the unit of body dose equivalent, the Sievert (Sv).
- Recognise the medical applications of X-rays, including plain film, tomography and computed tomography (CT) scanning.
- Define the terms RF energy, Larmor frequency, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET).
- Sketch the basic design principles of various medical physics instruments.
- Contribute to discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging techniques available to medical physicists and radiologists.
- Tabulate the spread of dosage to various parts of the body for typical X-ray procedures.
- Analyse the basic physics principles underlying medical physics procedures and instrumentation.
- Identify historical developments leading to medical imaging procedures.
- Observe the features of a presented medical image to infer its production technique.
CHAPTER 33 SUMMARY
- Techniques in medical physics are based on discoveries in pure physics and chemistry.
- The de Broglie wavelength properties of electron beams allow higher resolution microscopes than is possible with white light.
- Electron microscopes are used in TEM or SEM modes.
- Scanning tunneling microscopes rely on quantum mechanical properties of atomic structure.
- Non-invasive diagnostic techniques that do not involve ionising radiation include ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
- X-ray techniques, including normal film, tomography and computed tomography (CT) are continually being improved.
- Nuclear medicine involves the diagnostic and therapeutic use of radiopharmaceuticals of various types.
- Radioisotopes for medical scintigraphy use are primarily produced in Australia at the ANSTO, HIFAR reactor at Lucas Heights or in several medical cyclotrons.
- The SI unit for absorbed dose is the Gray (Gy), while for body dose equivalent the unit is the Sievert (Sv).
- Most recent advances in nuclear medicine involve SPECT and PET studies which involve gamma and positron emitters.
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